Thursday, January 23, 2020

ADHD Medication and Children Essay -- health, disorders

Not being able to keep still, talking out of turn, and not being able to resist temptation are many traits of a child under the age of twelve; also, the symptoms of a child diagnosed with ADHD. Though there isn’t a test to determine whether or not a child has ADHD many psychiatrists are quick to incline that the child may have this behavioral disorder even though they could just be acting like children. Not only are psychiatrists too quick to diagnose they’re also quick to prescribe medications that have high risks of causing behavioral changes and disruption of the chemical balance within the brain. Children under the age of twelve should never be diagnosed and/or prescribed medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Many people don’t even know what attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is. According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ADHD is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders for children. It causes children to be hyperactive, act without thinking, have trouble focusing, and have problems paying attention to instructions. Since many children have these symptoms without having ADHD, Kingsley explains in more detail: Of course, all kids (especially younger ones) act this way at times, particularly when they're anxious or excited. But the difference with ADHD is that symptoms are present over a longer period of time and occur in different settings. They impair a child's ability to function socially, academically, and at home. (Kingsley, MD) This could cause a problem with parents and children alike especially when the child becomes enrolled in school considering that school requires a lot of attention. There are three different types of ADHD: Predominantly Inattent... ...ol and Prevention, 17 Jan. 2014. Web. 04 Mar. 2015. "Medications: Using Them Safely." KidsHealth. Ed. Yamini Durani. The Nemours Foundation, 01 Nov. 2011. Web. 03 Feb. 2015. Paddock, Catherine, PhD. Michigan State University. "Nearly one million children in U.S. potentially misdiagnosed with ADHD, â€Å"Science Daily. Science Daily, 17 August 2010. Web. 05 Mar. 2015. "Psychiatric Medication for Children and Adolescents Part III: Questions to Ask." Psychiatric Medication for Children and Adolescents Part III: Questions to Ask. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Nov. 2012. Web. 03 Feb. 2015. Robinson, Lawrence. "ADD / ADHD Medications." ADD/ADHD Medications: Are ADHD Drugs Right for You or Your Child? N.p., Sept. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2015. Shute, Nancy. "Neurologists Warn Against ADHD Drugs To Help Kids Study." NPR. NPR, 14 Mar. 2013. Web. 05 Mar. 2015.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Canadian International School and Asia Essay

There are certain things in life that are taken for granted. Some people would feel contented with what they have, while others would have a bigger yearning to become someone. Sometimes, what we yearn for in life becomes the very core of our existence, making us hardworking and persevering. My high school was spent in Asia, where I was exposed to numerous realities. I graduated from the Canadian International School and Asia, and I must say that I was provided with the necessary knowledge in order to become prepared for the real world. Eventually, I was given the opportunity to study at the NAME OF UNIVERSITY. The short time I spent there was enough for me to become equipped with the necessary knowledge that would allow me to follow my dreams. However, I believe that I would be able to spread my wings further if I studied at the NAME OF UNIVERSITY in Vancouver, Canada. For this, I am showing my interest in taking up NAME OF DEGREE from your university. Studying at the NAME OF UNVIERSITY would not come as a challenge, for I have been previously exposed to the Canadian way of teaching. In this regard, I would not have much difficulty adjusting to the culture, and instead become more proficient in class. I would become more comfortable with my environment, at the same time be able to express myself further in the best possible way that I can. As mentioned earlier, it is my belief that your university would become one of my keystones in achieving my goals in life. Although some would opt to think that the success of an individual is not based on the school, I beg to disagree. Some of the important factors to be learned in life are based on the foundation that institutions have inculcated in their students. Since I have been a product of a Canadian institution in high school, I wish to strengthen my knowledge and beliefs further with your help. Life is always about taking risks – these are the choices that we make in order to fulfill our dreams.

Monday, January 6, 2020

How Does Ethical Training Help Nurses Handle Difficult...

How does Ethical Training Help Nurses handle Difficult Ethical Dilemmas While Providing Quality, Patient-Focused Care in Nursing? Nurses are a critical part of the healthcare workforce. They are required to make tough ethical decisions. Without the right ethical training, nurses may experience moral distress, which in turn undermines their ability to make a morally correct decision (Grady 2008). Consequently, the quality of care provided to patients is significantly compromised. However, the objective of ethical training is to effectively manage ethical dilemmas without compromising patient focused care. Hence, ethical training reflects the preservation of patient preference and rights, ultimately promoting positive patient outcomes. Significance of the Problem The ethical issues experienced by nurses during their daily activities have received a limited amount of attention. Despite this, ethical problems and dilemmas are a part of nursing practices all over the world. Research indicates that 43% of nurses encounter ethical issues on a daily basis while 36% face the same problem on a weekly basis (Ulrich 2010). At the same time, nurses are required to uphold certain moral values, responsibilities and duties that are crucial to the nursing profession (Ulrich 2010). As a result, nurses face numerous ethical challenges. Furthermore, nurses encounter numerous factors that undermine their ability to practice in an ethical manner. When faced with ethicalShow MoreRelatedTheoretical Framework4961 Words   |  20 PagesNursing Practice: A Personal Framework After graduating nursing school in 2008, I started working as an Operating Room nurse (OR) at a level one trauma center, which specializes in neurosurgery. I now scrub and circulate neurology, urology, ENT (ear, nose and throat), and plastic surgeries. I am also a charge nurse and in charge of orienting new nurses and graduate nurses. The OR is fast paced and challenging. One never knows what is going to come through the doors, but you have to be readyRead MoreHsm 542 Week 12 Discussion Essay45410 Words   |  182 Pages------------------------------------------------- Top of Form Week 1: Introductions/Overview: An Ethical and Legal Framework - Discussion This weeks graded topics relate to the following Terminal Course Objectives (TCOs): A | Given a situation related to reproductive genetics, genetic research, or the human genome project, develop a set of legal and ethical guidelines, which can be applied to genetic issues for the conduct of medical practice and/or research. | B | Given the contentiousRead MoreReflective Account of ....10187 Words   |  41 Pagesworking together other with twenty AMO’s, ten registered staff nurses and seventeen nursing aid in this department. In Malaysia AMO plays a major role in early diagnosis and treatment of patient whereby they are assign in hospital and clinics. AMO working in the ED are competent in the provision of emergency cares and function as the main front liner care provider that includes provision of emergency treatment, stabilization, definitive care and function as an important component of the Trauma Team (MinistryRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 PagesCreating a Positive Work Environment 22 †¢ Improving Ethical Behavior 22 Coming Attractions: Developing an OB Model 23 An Overview 23 †¢ Inputs 24 †¢ Processes 25 †¢ Outcomes 25 Summary and Implications for Managers 30 S A L Self-Assessment Library How Much Do I Know About Organizational Behavior? 4 Myth or Science? â€Å"Most Acts of Workplace Bullying Are Men Attacking Women† 12 An Ethical Choice Can You Learn from Failure? 24 glOBalization! Does National Culture Affect Organizational Practices?Read MoreFundamentals of Hrm263904 Words   |  1056 Pagesto self-assessment, to a wealth of interactive visual and audio resources, WileyPLUS gives you everything you need to personalize the teaching and learning experience.  » F i n d o u t h ow t o M A K E I T YO U R S  » ALL THE HELP, RESOURCES, AND PERSONAL SUPPORT YOU AND YOUR STUDENTS NEED! 2-Minute Tutorials and all of the resources you your students need to get started Student support from an experienced student user Ask your local representativeRead MoreLeadership for Health and Social Care and Children65584 Words   |  263 PagesQUALIFICATION HANDBOOK Level 5 Diploma in Leadership for Health and Social Care and Children and Young People’s Services (England) (3978-51/52/53/54/55/56) December 2011 Version 2.1 (July 2011) Qualification at a glance Subject area City Guilds number Age group approved Entry requirements Assessment Fast track Level 5 Diploma in Leadership for Health and Social Care and Children and Young People’s Services (England) 3978 19+ There are no entry requirements Portfolio of Evidence, PracticalRead MoreHuman Resources Management150900 Words   |  604 PagesIdentify the three different roles of HR management. Discuss the three dimensions associated with HR management as a strategic business contributor. Explain why HR professionals and operating managers must view HR management as an interface. Discuss why ethical issues and professionalism affect HR management as a career field. ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  3 HR TRANSITIONS HR Management Contributes to Organizational Success More effective management of human resources (HR) increasingly is being seen asRead MoreLibrary Management204752 Words   |  820 Pages . . . 76 Forecasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Theory Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Management by Objectives (MBO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Total Quality Management (TQM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Policy Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Sources of Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Effective Policy Development .Read MoreInternational Management67196 Words   |  269 Pageshas renewed calls for corporations to do more to protect the planet and governments to get tougher with companies in terms of oversight and accountability. The advent of social networking and other media has transformed the way citizens interact and how businesses market, promote, and distribute t heir products globally. The same can be said for mass collaboration efforts occurring through digital, online technology for the development of new and innovative systems, products, and ideas. Both socialRead MoreOverview of Hrm93778 Words   |  376 Pagesfollowing human resource management functions†¦ †¢ Staffing (HR planning, recruitment and selection) †¢ Human resource development †¢ Compensation and benefits †¢ Safety and health †¢ Employee and labor relations †¢ Records maintaining, etc. †¢ HR research (providing a HR information base, designing and implementing employee communication system). †¢ Interrelationship of HR functions. A. What is human resource management? As we said that HRM is the management of people working in an organization, it is a subject

Sunday, December 29, 2019

The Future Of Biotechnology Through The Hands Of Innovation

The future of biotechnology lies in the hands of innovation. The seed industry is a primary example of how utilization of innovation can globalize any business. Innovation does not come easy; it requires the right people and environment to prosper. This environment is fostered through the organizational culture of the business. Being able to manage this culture becomes a greater challenge as a business becomes globalized. Collaboration amongst people of different backgrounds, cultures, and beliefs can be a daunting charge, but has been shown to increase innovation productivity. Increasing innovation in seed biotechnology companies are promoted through the company’s clearly defined philosophy that enables culturally diverse people to†¦show more content†¦Ideas and concepts communicated through various teams are progressive stepping-stones towards change, which can unleash the full potential of creativity (213). It is not a wild stream of ideas that will help inn ovation move forward, but rather a very well focused concept. Creating a clear and concise system allows people to truly focus on innovations that are aligned with the organization’s objectives and reduces the energy and time spent on incoherent ideas. In order to produce sustainable innovation a company needs to create a culture that will bring forth new ideas. Culture can be defined as a set of unwritten rules, shared beliefs, and mental models of people (236). This culture needs to harness creativity and renew the company by focusing on things that make it successful, conserving best practices that exist, and ensuring innovation investments are being well used while allowing employees the freedom to innovate. In a discussion paper written by Ceren Ozgen, Peter Nijkamp, and Jacques Poot, The Impact of Cultural Diversity on Innovation: Evidence from Dutch Firm-Level Data, they concluded that firms open to change nurture creativeness and are more prone to innovation. Businesses that develop this type of culture are more apt to implement new products and process innovations (17). Cultural diversity and plant-level productivity, a discussion paper written on the topic of diversity in the work place by Michaela Trax, Stephan Brunow, and JensShow MoreRelatedGenetically Modified Organism ( Gmo )1267 Words   |  6 Pagesbeing used for planting is no longer expanding, unless new production innovation is created, the increase in demand for food will raise food prices and lead to food shortages. There seems to be only one solution to this problem at the moment and that is the implementation of Genetic Engineering, in other words, GMOs. A Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) is an organism whose genetic characteristics have been altered using biotechnology and GE (genetic engineering) to produce crops. The role GM foods shouldRead MoreThe Case Against Perfection by Michael Sandel983 Words   |  4 Pagesdelved deeply into the ethics of biotechnology. At Harvard, Sandel has taught a course called Ethics, Biotechnology, and the Future of Human Nature and from 2002 to 2005 he served on the President’s Council on Bioethics (Harvard University Department of Government, 2013). In 2007, Sandel published his book, The Case Against Perfection: Ethics in the Age of Genetic Engineering, in which he explains unethical implications biotechnology has and may have in the near future regarding genetic engineeringRead MoreHow Technology Has Changed Our Life1643 Words   |  7 Pagesin recent decades and getting much popular in our routines. We use smart phones to contact each other; all kinds of APP’s usage make our life easy and convenient. Personal computers become daily necessities, which we can easily crab information through the Internet. Online technologies server in school educations, work place, social environment and also family life. If we compare it to life in thirty years’ ago, we will be surprised by the dramatically changing. Technology in daily life is rapidlyRead MoreEssay about Should Genetic Engineering Be Controlled by Law?992 Words   |  4 Pagescharacteristics of the genes directly(Wikipedia). In the last decade, genetic engineering has become an important subject in engineering, biotechnology, and economics. It has become a controversial debate between advocates of science from one hand, and the advocates of religion, which is apparently the adversary of science, from the other hand. Supporters of science believe that genetic engineering is a way of technological and scientific development and advancement. For instance, improvingRead MoreShould Gmos Be Considered Part Of A Sustainable Food System?1161 Words   |  5 Pagesare Genetically-Modified Foods? Genetically-Modified Foods, commonly known as GMOs, are crop plants that have been created for human and animal consumption by genetic engineering techniques of biotechnology. These crop plants have been modified in a lab to create a desired trait that has been undertaken through breeding methods. Lately, there has been major controversy and disputes on if GMOs are a solution or a problem in today’s society. Now, a question for debate is, should GMOs be considered partRead MoreFuture Marketing Concept1050 Words   |  5 Pagesout new ways to keep pace with the more demanding markets. Future marketing will lead by the big ideas and innovations. Consumer will become knowledgeable about the products and their rights. It will change the consumer behavior and their patterns of consumption. Thousands of researches are conducting by marketing researchers to predict future market and develop the new ways of marketing. In this assignment we tried to forecast the future marketing strategies and few ideas based on our perceptionRead MoreGB511C Strategic Resources Management: Final Exam Essay1679 Words   |  7 Pagesof the most important factors that will determine where firms locate is the quality of human capital. For a manufacturing company, the US is a good source of a well educated and competent labor force. In the US in the last 20 years, technological innovation has transformed the manufacturing work force, increasingly favoring higher-skilled individuals, many with post-secondary education. The traditional blue-collar and middle-skill manufacturing jobs, that are the traditional norm in the US, are accountingRead MoreThe Rights, Health And Safety1626 Words   |  7 Pages2.2 Rights, Health and Safety Before commencing of work term, a week of training is delivered for employee including Co-op technicians with the emphasis of work place safety and employee rights. Through different presentation and video, the urgency of personal protection equipment, health and safety issues are described during training and again throughout the Co-op term. The employees also received various training regarding work stress, food safety, and current issues of food and beverage productionRead MoreXenomouse Case Study Analysis1618 Words   |  7 Pagesfirm Biopart, equally sharing all future costs and profits. 3. Pursuing a â€Å"go-it-alone† strategy through the end of phase II trials, thus postponing the decision of whom, if any, to partner with. The first two alternatives were somewhat consistent with Abgenix’ past business model that yielded revenues in two ways: 1) by issuing exclusive licenses to use XenoMouse for drug development targeting specific diseases to leading pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies and 2) by undertaking theRead MoreBiomedical Technology : The Future Of Medicine1659 Words   |  7 PagesBIOMEDICAL TECHNOLOGY 1 Running Head: BIOMEDICAL TECHNOLOGY Biomedical Technology: The Future of Medicine Tori Kocsis Richland High School BIOMEDICAL TECHNOLOGY 2 Abstract This paper explores emerging technologies and innovations created by biomedical engineers to help improve the medical industry, despite even the worst critics beliefs. Target drugs specifically deliver medications to specific parts of the body to aid in tackling diseases

Saturday, December 21, 2019

Informal Assessment Of Student 1 - 1105 Words

Overall, the informal assessment of Student 1 indicates that she lacks in the academic language vocabulary and grammar more than the social language functions. While she was able to converse with me during the interview part smoothly, she struggled with answering the questions after we had read the A-Z passage, and which required more complex language skills than the conversational ones. The assessment also indicates that she is a very bright student who was able to quickly grasp the new language, and who did very well with regards to the SOLOM assessment. It’s also evident that a strong foundation of the first language, and a passion for reading were significant factors facilitating learning of the new language. Student 2 Listening The†¦show more content†¦He said: â€Å"I know what it means but I don’t know how to explain it†. I also noticed that he occasionally inserts the words â€Å"You know† into the middle of the sentence, and also he uses the word â€Å"something† to substitute the word he does not know/remember. Student 2 speaks with an accent, however it is not as definite as in the Student 1’s speech. I scored his pronunciation at a level 4 out of 5 due to the occasional errors in pronunciation of short vowels, e.g. he substituted /a:/ with Polish /o/ in the word â€Å"stop†; he also said /dad/ when pronouncing â€Å"that†, and /oder/ while pronouncing the word â€Å"other†. Generally, his pronunciation is comprehensible, and does not require concentration on the part of the listener. Finally, Student 2 scored at a level 4 out of 5 on the grammar part of the oral assessment. He consistently uses appropriate tenses, plural, endings, compa risons of adjectives, and word order. He struggles with more sophisticated grammatical sentences, such as Past perfect, Reported Speech, II and III Conditional Sentences, e.g. â€Å"She thought she is going to ride a horse†, â€Å"Before she came to the ranch, she thought life on the ranch is going to be easy†, â€Å"I didn’t know English when I moved here. If I knew English, it would be easier†. The analysis of Student 2 running records, as well as a brief interview I conducted with him in English indicate his quick acquisition of the second language.Show MoreRelatedEducating Children On Literacy Skills869 Words   |  4 Pagesteachers in quality literacy instruction, informal reading assessments must be utilized to direct instructional planning. Results from these assessments allow teachers to know a student’s development, thus plan accordingly for instruction as stated by Dr.Bear (Laureate Production, Inc.2014a).Informal reading assessments als o guide teachers to understand a student’s frustration, instructional, and independent levels of learning. With many informal assessments to choose from, the following informationRead MoreInformal Assessments : Observation Of Everyday Performance1274 Words   |  6 Pages Informal assessments includes the observation of everyday performance. This is the method in which teachers collect information about their students’ performance in usual classroom conditions. Informal assessments are a part of the instructional process and can include â€Å"systematics observations, work sample analysis, task and error analysis, interviews and questionnaires’† (Sacks, 2011). It is done without establishing test conditions such as in the case of formal assessment. Teachers must be roleRead MoreShould Tests Be Taught At School?940 Words   |  4 PagesThe use of assessments in school is always creating controversy due to the fact that many people believe that quizzes a nd tests do not define a student’s learning. While I agree that tests should not be the only defining factor of a student’s grade, assessments can be a valuable tool in understanding what a student has learned. Personally, I struggle with assessments because I went to a Waldorf school, which is an institution that does not believe in test taking. I believe that there are pros andRead MoreAn Educational Crisis: The Need for Informal Assessment Essay1605 Words   |  7 PagesStudents are falling through the cracks, being left behind, and are not being educated properly; these are statements we hear every day about our educational system. Attempts have been made to reform and overhaul the educational crisis. However, few have been successful. High expectations are being placed on students to perform well on standardized tests so â€Å"no child is left behind† and schools are not labeled as â€Å"failures.† This strict discipline of teaching to the test is only harming the qualityRead MoreDisadvantages Of Criterion Referenced Tests1479 Words   |  6 PagesA2. Disadvantages of Criterion-referenced tests: 1. According to Glossary of Education Reform, 2014, the tests are merely as accurate or fair as the learning standards upon which they are established. If the standards are loosely verbalized, too challenging or too easy for the learners being evaluated, the test scores will manifest the incorrect standards. An assessment administered in eleventh grade that reflects a level of comprehension and proficiency learners should have learned in eighth gradeRead MoreThe First Step Of Identifying English Language Learners993 Words   |  4 PagesEnglish Language Learners (ELL) is the give them an assessment. In my district, the student are given WIDA / W-APT assessment. W-APT is known as the WIDA-ACCESS Placement Test. This is an English language proficiency test that students take to identify them as English Language Learners. This test helps educators with placement decisions for English Language Learners. The test is divided into different groupings based on the grade level of the student being accessed. It addresses each area of the fourRead MoreEssay about Integrating Science and Math Into The Classroom 1383 Words   |  6 Pagesscience processes can be use in the lesson. In addition, we will examine how the use of differentiation can be use in this unit to address the needs of all the students. This paper will also address how assessments promote student learning. Finally this paper will show how the use of reflection thinking, manipulative and materials helps students develop a sense of science and fractions. The 12 Science Processes This unit on the apple life cycle includes the use of the 12 science processes in theRead MoreChildren s Range Of Vocabulary Development1085 Words   |  5 Pagessounds, words, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs) essential for children to use during the learning segment. [Students already know key math vocabulary terms such as true math statements, say-ten way, and place values. These terms are crucial for students to continue in expanding their academic vocabulary terms for this math topic. During the learning segments for this topic, students will learn and apply different key vocabulary terms. These terms include words such as quantities, greater, lessRead MoreIdentifying Signs Of A Language And Communication1490 Words   |  6 PagesAbstract Students were observed in a classroom setting for the purpose of identifying signs of a language and communication disorder. Speech, reading and writing skills were examined to identify areas of atypical development and to determine the appropriate formal assessment needed to further evaluate the student exhibiting a language deficit. A correlation between problems with expressive oral and written language was noted on observation. Possible intervention strategies are discussed to helpRead MoreEvaluation Of The Elementary English Language Learners And Special Education1738 Words   |  7 Pages Assessments are important tools that educators use for a variety of reasons. The basic use of assessments is for measuring the student’s knowledge. For English Language Learners and special education students, assessments are generally used for placement. Using the results from the evaluations, educators use their findings to place the students in the most beneficial class for them. As more ELL students enter the classroom as well as other diverse scholars, the importance of having knowledge of

Friday, December 13, 2019

Negative Sites on Abortion, Helping Make a Dignified Choice Free Essays

Every year in the United States, 25% of pregnancies are ended in abortion. This number may seem quite high, but it is actually on the decline and is much lower than several other countries. These numbers are extremely high for one main reason. We will write a custom essay sample on Negative Sites on Abortion, Helping Make a Dignified Choice or any similar topic only for you Order Now That reason is a lack of education. When young women become pregnant they feel the only alternative to having the baby is abortion. This is wrong and that is why we must educate the public to bring the abortion numbers down. The abortion issue has two sides. Pro-lifers believe that a human life is created at conception. Pro-choicers believe life begins at birth. Both groups have the common goal of minimizing the number of abortions, but have different ways of accomplishing that. For example, pro-lifers believe abortion should be illegal, while pro-choicers believe that it is the woman†s body as well as her choice. The other main differences lie in the definitions of several key terms. For example take the word pregnancy. Pro-lifers believe pregnancy starts at conception, while pro-choices believe it starts at the time of birth. To bring down the abortion rate, we need to focus on the factors causing the problems (Baird). I believe the main factor is a lack of education. If we started to educate children earlier about pregnancy, we would see a drop in the number of pregnancies and abortions. While this technique may be long and expensive, it is the best remedy for the long run. There are several ways we can implement this technique. We could develop a program similar to D. A. R. E. , in which it is demanded for students to take classes. D. A. R. E. , which stands for Drug Abuse Resistance Education, has been especially successful. The purpose of the program is to inform children that popularity can be found in positive and nonviolent behavior. The program also helps children feel a sense of belonging that stresses their values. D. A. R. E teaches children valuable lessons concerning drugs and alcohol abuse. The program helps the children to lead better, fuller, and more satisfying lives. Research done by the D. A. R. E. program showed that for every $1 spent on drug abuse prevention, communities can save $4 to $5 in costs for drug abuse treatment and counseling. It was also found that in the past two years, drug abuse has either stayed the same or declined. The program has seen this type of success since it started in 1983 (D. A. R. E. ). I believe a class like this concerning abortion and pregnancy would have similar success. The class would inform the children on the purposes of sex and pregnancy. It would teach them the importance of sex and why you should wait for the right person. This would directly tie into abortion portion of the class. The class would tell why abortion is wrong and what alternatives there are to abortion. They would learn how contraceptive methods such as condoms are used to prevent pregnancy, while abortifacient techniques are used to end a pregnancy that has already begun (Prolife. rg). Some other common forms of birth control the students would learn about are diaphragms, cervical caps, contraceptive pills, and emergency contraception pills or â€Å"the morning after pill. † There are some other alternatives to education. One of them is making abortion illegal, but at this stage it is impossible. As the public continues to become more educated, the abortion rate will go down as will the opinion of abortion. At this stage there may be a possibility of making abortion illegal. But until we get to this stage, making abortion illegal is not an option. There is hope though, because the public’s opinion of abortion has been changing. A CNN Poll in 1998 showed that only 31% of men and 32% of women were advocates of abortion. A similar poll was taken in 1980, which showed that 52% of the population believed in some form of abortion. Other than education, making it illegal would be the main goal. Obviously abortions would still happen, but now the number of pregnancies each year would dip under five percent. I also believe that more pregnancy clinics are needed. Pregnancy clinics help to spread the word to the public concerning pregnancy. I believe simple things like free condoms are a start to remedy the problem (Religioustolerance. org). As mentioned earlier, education is the best way of dealing with the abortion rate. Education at a younger age helps to control pregnancy and it informs involved parties of the alternatives they have. Not only would the abortion rate and pregnancy rate drop, but so would the number of sexually transmitted diseases. Although every woman has the right to abortion, I believe that many women would change their decision if they knew of the alternatives. How to cite Negative Sites on Abortion, Helping Make a Dignified Choice, Papers

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Tort Law in Australia Samples for Students †

Question: Discuss about the Tort Law in Australian Business. Answer: A tort may be defined as a civil wrong that is committed by one individual against another. There is no specific legislation or a statute that defines the term as it has evolved mainly through common law or judge made laws. Tort law in Australia is heavily influenced by the common law of other countries such as the United Kingdom owing to the colonial heritage of Australia. However, there have been modifications in the tort law with the enactment of the statute Civil Liability Acts in several Australian states. Some of the common torts in Australian Law includes negligence, trespass, misrepresentation, breach of statutory and public duties, interference with employment and family relations, intentional damage to economic interests, private nuisance, defamation, etc (Leon 2015). The torts applicable in business situations are known as economic torts. Economic or business torts are wrongful acts that are committed against the business entities. Such wrongful acts are often committed deliberately and sometimes they result from recklessness or negligence, which causes some kind of pecuniary loss to the aggrieved party. Although these torts are not criminal offenses but some acts may amount to criminal offences as well such as restraint of trade (Little et al. 2014). The wrongful acts that leads to financial loss in business as a result of intentional negligent acts, the aggrieved party or the business is entitled to bring a civil compensation in the civil court and seek monetary compensation or obtain an injunction order with a view to prohibit the defendant from committing such unlawful activities. The most common form of torts that is applicable in business situations includes the tort of negligence and the tort of misrepresentation. Negligence may be defined as the failure of an individual to exercise duty of care towards a person he owed such duty. The principle that an individual owes a duty of care to his neighbor has been established in the Donoghue v Stevensons case. The term neighbor refers to the person who would be affected by the acts or omissions of the person committing such acts or omission. The risk of harm that would result from the action or omission of the person must be reasonably foreseeable and the person must take reasonable steps to avert such risk. In order to establish a claim against a person for negligence, the aggrieved must establish the essential elements of the tort of negligence. The aggrieved party must establish that the defendant owed a duty of care and has caused a breach of that duty. The plaintiff has suffered damages and sustained injuries as a result of such breach. The damage caused must be the direct result of the consequence of such breach as was held in Barnett v Chelsea Kensington Hospital [1969] 1 QB 428. Further, it is imperative to establish for the aggrieved party that the loss resulted was the consequence of breach and the risk was reasonably foreseeable. Any reasonable person could have foresee the risk if he was in the position of the defendant, under same circumstances. This principle was introduced in the case Wagon Mound No 1 [1969] AC 388, where the court ruled that if the defendant were liable for the loss that was foreseeable, he would be completely liable for the loss. An instance of tort of negligence in business situations may be exemplified in a case Oyston v St Patrickss College [2011] NSWSC 269, where a student won a negligence case against his school where the school failed to exercise its duty of care. Jazmine Oyston brought a legal action against her former high school, St. Patricks College, in New South Wales, on the ground of negligence. Jazmine alleged that she was injured at the time of enrolment and was subject to harassment, bullying which caused her to suffer from panic attacks, depression, and anxiety. She alleged that the policies and practices of the school failed to safeguard her from the foreseeable and recognized harm. The court held that the risk of harm was foreseeable and the school had foreseen the same that the students were often bullied and harassed by some of the pupils in the school. The court laid emphasis on the fact whether the school policies or other reasonable steps taken by the school as sufficient to ensure that the school has fulfilled its duty of care that it owed to Oyston. In this scenario, the court stated that the school was have failed to exercise its duty of care as despite the implementation of the policies of the school related to bullying, the school has failed to take reasonable steps to safeguard Oyston from being subject to bullying or harassment when the school was aware of the problem. The policies were inadequate and consequently, Oyston sustained injuries (Stickley 2016). The judge further stated that any reasonable person would have initiated investigation of the complaints made by Jasmine and would have arranged for strict monitoring of the actions of the pupils. In terms of causation, the judge held that the injuries sustained by Oyston in the form of psychological injury, is the direct result of the failure of the College to take reasonable steps to prevent Oyston from being injured due to such bullying or harassment. The court has awarded damages to Oyston. In this present scenario, it can be observed that the plaintiff, Oyston, had established that the college owed a duty of care to her, it had failed to exercise such duty of care, and such breach has directly caused her damages. The college failed to take reasonable steps to prevent such risk when it was reasonably foreseeable by the college. The torts of misrepresentation refer to the false statement of law or fact that induces a representee to enter into an agreement. A statement that is made during negotiations is classified as representation and when the statement turns out to be false, it is classified as misrepresentation. In case, any contractual term turns out to be a misrepresentation, the contract becomes voidable which implies that the representee is entitled to set aside or rescind the contract (Sandeen 2015). In order to establish a claim of the misrepresentation, the aggrieved party must establish the essential elements of misrepresentation. One of the significant element of misrepresentation is false statement with respect to any fact or law as oppose to opinion or estimate of future events. This element was considered as an essential element in Esso Petroleum v Mardon [1976] QB 801. If the person making false statement is aware of the fact that the statements are false, he shall be held liable for committi ng misrepresentation as was observed in Smith v Land House Property Corp [1884] 28 Ch D 7. The other essential element of misrepresentation is that the aggrieved party has relied on the false statement made by the representator and have entered into the contract. If the aggrieved party has not relied on the false statements made by the representator, or was not induced to enter into a contract, he shall not be entitled to bring a claim of misrepresentation (North and Flitcroft 2016). There are three types of misrepresentation, which includes fraudulent misrepresentation, negligent misstatement, and innocent misrepresentation. An instance of misrepresentation from recent business scenario can be observed in the Joystick Company Pty Ltd where the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) has initiated legal proceedings against the Joystick Company in the Federal Court on the ground that the company has been engaged in misrepresentation of products. The company has been alleged for making false statements to its customers that the products of the company do not contain any formaldehyde or toxins. The commissioned tests conducted against the company reveal that the tested e-cigarette product of the company contains toxic chemicals including acrolein, acetaldehyde that is carcinogenic to humans. The court held that the director of the joystick company is aware of the fact that the products of his company contains toxic chemicals that is injurious to the human health and still the company makes false statements to induce the consumers purchase their products (Corones 2014). In Australia, the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 was introduced to safeguard the rights of the consumers with respect to the conduct of the seller in relation to trade and commerce. The statute prohibits individuals, businesses form engaging into any unfair practices under section 18 of schedule 2 of the Act that deals with Australian Consumer Law that involves misleading or deceptive conduct, unconscionable conduct, unfair terms, false, or misleading representations, bait advertising, referral selling, misleading the public etc. The schedule 2 of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010, stipulates consumer guarantees to the consumers, which must be complied with the persons or businesses providing such goods or services. The consumers of the businesses are entitled to receive goods or services of appropriate quality and the statements made by the persons or businesses with respect to the quality, condition, value and price must match while the goods are delivered and services are r endered to the customers. The businesses in Australia are prohibited from making any false statements that are likely to mislead or induce the customers to enter into the contract. The other forms of torts other than negligence or misrepresentation that are applicable in business situations include restraint of trade, fraudulent misrepresentation, defamation, breach of statutory duties and intentional damage to economic interests (Howells and Weatheril 2017). The businesses must not make false statements knowing it to be false without believing that such statement is true. It must ensure that the businesses do not be recklessly careless about the fact whether such statement is true or false. The persons carrying out the business must not make any statement for which they have no reasonable grounds to believe that such statement is true. The torts of negligence and the torts of misrepresentation are the most common torts that take place in the corporate world. For instance, in a business situation, within the premises of the retailer, the retailer must ensure that it does not engage in any conduct that would engage any unfair practices (Latimer 2016). The retailer must ensure that he does not make any false statement regarding the quality, value, price, condition or nature of the goods and services rendered to the customers to prevent any act of misrepresentation. In regards to the tort of negligence, the businesses must ensure the safety of the goods and services and that such goods or services does not cause any harm to the customers, as the businesses owe a duty of care towards its customers. If the risk that may arise from the goods or the services is foreseeable, reasonable steps should be taken to avoid such risks and prevent the customers. In case of any claim made by the clients against the actions of the businesses, the businesses must establish that it had complied with the consumer guarantees stipulated by the Australian Consumer Law (Pearson 2017). Further, the Businesses must establish that it has disclosed all relevant information related to the goods or services, thus, ensuring safety of the customers. The statutory authority such as the Australian Consumer law, ensures that the businesses does not engage in any unfair practices which causes significant imbalance in the rights and obligations of the parties to the contract and that it does not results in the detrimental of the consumers (Brody and Temple 2016). In case of any unfair practices, the aggrieved party shall be entitled to refund or repair of the goods or compensate the aggrieved party for the loss suffered or injuries sustained by the aggrieved party. It is evident from the scenarios above; it is evident that any person who owes a duty of care must take reasonable steps to prevent any risk that may arise from the acts or omissions of the person exercising such duty of care especially when such risks are reasonably foreseeable. Another instance like that of Joysticks company, Uber brings a legal claim against mobile ad agency Fetch Media for making misrepresentations with respect to the mobile ads and have failed to prevent the advertising of such fraudulent ads thus, the company becomes liable for committing negligence and misrepresentation. These instances are evident of the fact that the business or Economic torts that arises out of business transactions are likely responsible for interfering with the business relationship and not only results in financial loss but affects the reputation and goodwill of the business as well. References Barnett v Chelsea Kensington Hospital [1969] 1 QB 428. Brody, G. and Temple, K., 2016. Unfair but not illegal: Are Australia's consumer protection laws allowing predatory businesses to flourish?.Alternative Law Journal,41(3), pp.169-173. Competition and Consumer Act 2010 schedule 2 Corones, S.G., 2014.Competition law in Australia. Thomson Reuters Australia, Limited. Esso Petroleum v Mardon [1976] QB 801. Howells, G. and Weatherill, S., 2017.Consumer protection law. Routledge. Latimer, P., 2016. Protecting Consumers from Unfair Contract Terms: Australian Comparisons. Leon, J.J., 2015. Negligence-Torts-Negligent Misrepresentation-Downfall of Privity-Hanberry v. Hearst Corp., 81 Cal. Rptr. 519 (1969).DePaul Law Review,19(4), p.803. Little, J.W., Lidsky, L.B., O'Connell, S.C. and Lande, R.H., 2014.Torts: Theory and Practice. LexisNexis. North, J. and Flitcroft, R., 2016. Businesses beware When does the Australian Consumer Law apply?.Governance Directions,68(5), p.306. Oyston v St Patrickss College [2011] NSWSC 269, Pearson, G., 2017. Current Issues for Consumer Protection Law in Australia. InConsumer Law and Socioeconomic Development(pp. 199-208). Springer, Cham. Sandeen, S., 2015. LAW9151-W. Torts: The Common Law Process. F15. Sandeen, Sharon. Smith v Land House Property Corp [1884] 28 Ch D 7. Stickley, A.P., 2016.Australian Torts Law. 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